A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban by George F. Chadwick

By George F. Chadwick

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Extra resources for A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process

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3. A system with feedback loops. Thus to specify a system, we need : the inputs, the outputs, the system phase space,f and a description (model) relating inputs, outputs, and system states in time. This can be equated, of course, to Mesarovic's formal definition of a general system. A simple case of an input-output relationship is where an input (a) is subjected to a delay of time Τ before it is output (b). This relationship is governed by the linear equation : (t) = b(t - a t See p. 92 following.

Some (unspecified) function which operates on A's to become D's, B's to A's, C's to £"s, and £"s to D's. e. f Although this treatment of Set theory and associated topics has been both cursory and elementary, the concepts and notation mentioned will be found invaluable in relation to an understanding—and an application—of the theory of systems which follows, and those readers who find the language of t Cf. subsystems, in later discussion. What is Planning ? 33 mathematics unfamiliar are urged to grapple with their difficulties at this stage, rather than postpone such an attempt until they are confronted by even less familiar notation.

This is indeed an important question, but first let us list the "scale" of a system in relation to its parts : 1. The environment of a system : the set of all systems other than the one in which we are interested. We are never interested in the Systems 43 elements of the environment, otherwise we should have to include them in our defined system. 2. The system itself: defined at a given resolution level. 3. The subsystems of the system: parts of the whole which display a certain richness of intercommunication within which distinguishes them from other parts of the system as a whole, but which nevertheless are clearly part of the "larger" system.

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