By Paul T. Bateman

I first taught an summary algebra direction in 1968. utilizing Hcrstein's themes in Algebra. it really is not easy to enhance on his ebook; the topic could have develop into broader, with functions to computing and different components, yet issues comprises the middle of any path. regrettably, the topic hasn't develop into any more uncomplicated, so scholars assembly summary algebra nonetheless fight to profit the recent innovations, particularly because they're most likely nonetheless studying the way to write their very own proofs.This "study advisor" is meant to aid scholars who're starting to find out about summary algebra. rather than simply increasing the cloth that's already written down in our textbook, i made a decision to aim to educate via instance, by means of writing out strategies to difficulties. i have attempted to decide on difficulties that will be instructive, and in numerous instances i have integrated reviews to aid the reader see what's quite occurring. in fact, this examine consultant is not an alternative choice to a superb instructor, or for the opportunity to interact with different scholars on a few difficult problems.Finally. i need to gratefully recognize the help of Northern Illinois collage whereas penning this examine consultant. As a part of the popularity as a "Presidential instructing Professor," i used to be given go away in Spring 2000 to paintings on tasks with regards to instructing.

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2. Over the field of rational numbers, use the Euclidean algorithm to show that 2x3 − 2x2 − 3x + 1 and 2x2 − x − 2 are relatively prime. 3. Over the field of rational numbers, find the greatest common divisor of x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1 and x3 − 1, and express it as a linear combination of the given polynomials. 4. Over the field of rational numbers, find the greatest common divisor of 2x4 − x3 + x2 + 3x + 1 and 2x3 − 3x2 + 2x + 2 and express it as a linear combination of the given polynomials. 27 28 CHAPTER 4.

1 5. Define the function φ : Z× , for all x ∈ Z× 17 → Z17 by φ(x) = x 17 . Is φ one to one? Is φ onto? If possible, find the inverse function φ−1 . −1 Solution: For all x ∈ Z× ) = (x−1 )−1 = x, so 17 we have φ(φ(x)) = φ(x −1 φ = φ , which also shows that φ is one-to-one and onto. 6. (a) Let α be a fixed element of Sn . Show that φα : Sn → Sn defined by φα (σ) = ασα−1 , for all σ ∈ Sn , is a one-to-one and onto function. Solution: If φα (σ) = φα (τ ), for σ, τ ∈ Sn , then ασα−1 = ατ α−1 . We can multiply on the left by α−1 and on the right by α, to get σ = τ , so φα is one-to-one.

Thus A is an invertible matrix, and so det(A) = 0. On the other hand, if det(A) = 0, then A is invertible, and so L has an inverse, defined by L−1 (x) = A−1 x, for all x ∈ Rn . (b) Show that if L is either one-to-one or onto, then it is invertible. Solution: The rank of the matrix A is the dimension of the column space of A, and this is the image of the transformation L, so L is onto if and only if A has rank n. On the other hand, the nullity of A is the dimension of the solution space of the equation Ax = 0, and L is one-to-one if and only if the nullity of A is zero, since Ax1 = Ax2 if and only if A(x1 − x2 ) = 0.