By S. Alexander Weinstock
The plans for this learn have been formulated among 1956 and 1958. For it slow then, I have been drawn to the procedures of private and social lodging and within the components that have been accountable for resistance to alter. whereas a graduate scholar at Columbia college at the moment, i used to be additionally affiliated with a multidisciplinary examine team at Cornell collage clinical faculties learning the reactions of individuals of assorted cultural and social backgrounds to events of tension. The Hungarian refugees have been one of many teams being studied. I hence made up our minds to adopt a learn of the method of acculturation, the Hungarian refugees supplying a terrific inhabitants. i didn't anticipate to come across any critical problems. remember the fact that, the paintings used to be beset with each kind of trouble, monetary, conceptual, etc., that sometimes accompanies examine tasks. it is just now, greater than a decade later, that i'm in a position to current my findings of their ultimate shape. i'm happy to have this chance to specific my in debtedness to the various those that made thIS research attainable. i've been lucky in having lecturers, colleagues, and acquaintances, an identical individual, who helped me within the formula frequently all in of the matter, provided encouragement alongside each step, and taught me the very talents i used to be to use.
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Extra info for Acculturation and Occupation: A Study of the 1956 Hungarian Refugees in the United States
An estimated three million people lived on a near-starvation level. The government tried to divert the attention of the people from the wretched social conditions by reminding them endlessly of the losses Hungary had suffered under the terms of the Trianon Treaty. Government leaders clamored for the revision of the treaty and the restoration of Greater Hungary. Revisionist slogans appeared everywhere calling for the restoration of the lost territories. The restoration of the Hapsburg monarchy was, however, clearly excluded from the revisionists' plans.
The immediate result of all these measures was a tremendous drop in agricultural production. Nevertheless, the drive toward collectivization continued. The Communists forced the peasants to join the cooperatives by making private farming as uncomfortable as possible for them. , forced exchanges of property with cooperatives when the cooperatives wanted to unify their holdings. By 1953, 40% of the arable land in Hungary belonged to state farms or cooperatives. Agricultural production declined even further.
All kinds of information were recorded: political views, chance conversations, personal habits, family connections, unrelated opinions, "peace loan" contributions, and even slanderous rumors. No one could be certain which views were acceptable, since many of the members of the A. V. O. had formerly been members of the fascist Arrow Cross Party. Only the military and the party bureaucracy thrived under the Communists. These were the people in the privileged positions. For them there were special shops, couturiers, and villas with fenced-in gardens and police guards.