Alkali and Alkaline-earth Metals by Monica Halka

By Monica Halka

Scientists categorize the chemical parts as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids principally in response to the weather' skills to behavior electrical energy at basic temperatures and pressures, yet there are different differences taken under consideration whilst classifying the weather within the periodic desk. The alkali metals, for instance, are metals, yet have such specific houses that they're given their very own class. an analogous is correct for the alkaline earths.

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A slightly deflated bag, (continued on page 22) 19 20 ALKALI & ALKALINE EARTH METALS THE PHYSICS OF SODIUM VAPOR LAMPS Many street lights and building security lights give off a constant yellow glow. 6-nm wavelength. 3 nm. In a lamp filled with sodium gas, a voltage applied to electrodes at either end of the tube causes electrons to detach from the anode and accelerate toward the cathode. The electrons collide with the sodium vapor atoms, providing the energy for electrons within the sodium atoms to jump to higher levels.

Martyn F.  . ” The symbol Na for sodium comes from the Latin name for sodium, natrium. The symbol K for potassium comes from its Latin name, kalium. In the first decade of the 1800s, Sir Humphrey Davy established himself as a careful experimenter in the field of electrochemistry. In 1807, in his first attempts to decompose soda ash (NaOH) and potash (KOH), he passed electrical currents through aqueous solutions containing these compounds. However, he succeeded only in decomposing the water into hydrogen and oxygen gases.

In fusion, nuclei combine to form larger nuclei, as in the fusion of hydrogen isotopes to make helium. Energy may also be released during both fission and fusion. These events may occur naturally—fusion is the process that powers the Sun and all other stars—or they may be made to occur artificially. Elements can be transmuted artificially by bombarding heavy target nuclei with lighter projectile nuclei in reactors or accelerators. The transuranium elements have been produced that way. Curium, for example, can be made by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles.

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