By Pat Hawker, D.E. Cole
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22) only applies at ranges where the assumption d44hT , hR is valid. Close to the transmitter, eqn. 5. In convenient logarithmic form, eqn. 4 2:24 GROUND ROUGHNESS The previous section presupposed a smooth re¯ecting surface and the analysis was therefore based on the assumption that a specular re¯ection takes place at the point where the transmitted wave is incident on the Earth's surface. When the surface is Fundamentals of VHF and UHF Propagation 25 rough the specular re¯ection assumption is no longer realistic since a rough surface presents many facets to the incident wave.
11 The geometry for wedge diraction using UTD. where D represents the dyadic diraction coecient of the wedge, sH and s are the distances along the ray path from the source to the edge and from the edge to the receiving point respectively, A sH , s) is a spreading factor which describes the amplitude variation of the diracted ®eld and exp Àjks is a phase factor k 2p=l. H The pform of A s , s) depends on the type of wave being considered and is given by 1= s for plane and conical wave incidence.
None of the simple equations derived in Chapter 2 are suitable in unmodi®ed form for predicting average signal strength in the mobile radio context, although as we will see, both the free space and plane earth equations are used as an underlying basis for several models that are used. Before going any further, we will deal with some further theoretical and analytical techniques that underpin many prediction methods. 2 HUYGENS' PRINCIPLE Discussions of re¯ection and refraction are usually based on the assumption that the re¯ecting surfaces or refracting regions are large compared with the wavelength of the radiation.