American Patriotism, American Protest: Social Movements by Simon Hall

By Simon Hall

Through the Seventies and past, political motives either left and right-the homosexual rights circulate, second-wave feminism, the protests opposed to busing to desegregate faculties, the tax rebellion, and the anti-abortion struggle-drew idea from the protest events of the Nineteen Sixties. certainly, of their enthusiasm for direct-action strategies, their use of road theater, and their engagement in grassroots organizing, activists in these kinds of events should be thought of "children of the Sixties." Invocations of America's founding beliefs of liberty and justice and different kinds of patriotic protest have additionally featured prominently within the rhetoric and snapshot of those events. Appeals to the assertion of Independence and the invoice of Rights were made forcefully through homosexual rights activists and feminists, for example, whereas members within the antibusing stream, the tax riot, and the crusade opposed to abortion rights have waved the yank flag and claimed the aid of the nation's founders. In tracing the continuation of quintessentially "Sixties" kinds of protest and ideas into the final 3 a long time of the 20 th century, and in emphasizing their legacy for conservatives in addition to these at the left, American Patriotism, American Protest exhibits that the activism of the civil rights, New Left, and anti-Vietnam conflict hobbies has formed America's sleek political tradition in decisive methods. in addition to delivering a fresh replacement to the "rise and fall" narrative by which the Sixties are usually seen, Simon Hall's concentrate on the shared dedication to patriotic protest between a various diversity of activists around the political spectrum additionally demanding situations claims that, in contemporary many years, patriotism has turn into the safeguard of the political correct. filled with unique and insightful observations, and in keeping with vast archival examine, American Patriotism, American Protest transforms our realizing of the Sixties and their aftermath.

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S. 10 Indeed, in March 1965 the group’s membership passed an “anti-sickness” resolution. Adopted after several months of sustained and animated debate, it declared that “homosexuality is not a sickness, disturbance, or other pathology . . 12 The Struggle for Gay Rights 29 Formed in December 1955 by Cuban-born Tony Segura and clinical psychologist Sam Morford, the Mattachine Society of New York was initially reluctant to embrace the radicalism that was gaining ground in Washington. 16 This was a sign of things to come: during the mid-1960s the Mattachine Societies in Washington and New York, together with the DOB and Philadelphia’s Janus Society, staged a series of public demonstrations protesting discrimination against homosexuals.

105 It lobbied for fair employment and housing legislation, pushed for the repeal of sodomy laws, and sought an end to police harassment. 106 The GAA’s use of the zap was indicative of a “flair and sophistication that had never before been seen in gay liberation” and zaps could be humorous, colorful events. ” In early 1971, after Vincent Gillen, president of Fidelifacts, a New York private investigative agency, boasted 42 Chapter 2 to a reporter that his company was efficient in alerting potential employers that applicants were homosexual—on the basis that “if one looks like a duck, walks like a duck, associates only with ducks and quacks like a duck, he is probably a duck,” the GAA quickly arranged a zap.

94 At the end of 1969 four GLF activists—Jim Owles, Marty Robinson, Arthur Evans, and Arthur Bell—who were disillusioned with its lack of structure and its revolutionary multi-issue politics, founded the Gay Activists Alliance. 98 It became a single-issue interest group that, in the words of one scholar, “represented . . ”99 Indeed, the organization became famous for adopting and developing the “zap,” which quickly became its trademark tactic. The “zap,” a form of confrontational protest that combined political theater with direct action, revealed the influence of the countercultural activism that had emerged during the second half of the 1960s.

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