By Halil Inalcik
This significant contribution to Ottoman background is now released in paperback in volumes: the unique unmarried hardback quantity (CUP 1995) has been broadly acclaimed as a landmark within the research of 1 of the main enduring and influential empires of contemporary occasions. The authors supply a richly specific account of the social and monetary background of the Ottoman area, from the origins of the Empire round 1300 to the eve of its destruction in the course of global warfare One. The breadth of variety and the fullness of assurance make those volumes crucial for an knowing of latest advancements in either the center East and the post-Soviet Balkan international.
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Extra info for An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, vol. 1, 1300-1600
96 It is, rather, the argument concerning state land that is complex. Essentially al-Ramli gives three options. First is the opinion of Ibn Nujaim. Second is the classical Hanaﬁte doctrine concerning kharaj land, whereby when a cultivator is incapable, or disappears or ﬂees, the sultan may give out the land to another to cultivate or may even sell it should no one be willing to rent the land; or, failing that, the sahib al-ard can lend a cultivator the sum needed to put the land in cultivation.
81 In another fetwa ‘Abd al-Rahman describes a timar holder who brings a group from one village to cultivate a ruined village. After they have been there for four years, bedouins come and destroy the houses and crops. The timari then tries to force the cultivators to return to the devastated village and to pay the kasr al-faddan for the years intervening. ‘Abd al-Rahman refuses this outright. But even here the judgment is not in conﬂict with the kanun since the cultivators ﬂed after destruction of their village by a third party.
17 Debate in the 16th century [Second thesis] If we say not that the lands are owned by their occupants but rather that the essence (raqaba) belongs to the treasury as has been the practice in our time and the time of our fathers and grandfathers; that when the sultan conquered a region he did not divide its land among those entitled to a part in the booty since the imam may choose between dividing the land and keeping it for the Muslims until the day of resurrection on condition [of payment] of tax (kharaj); then the possessor (dhi ’l-yad ﬁ-ha) would enjoy use-rights.