By Pelin Ayan Musil (auth.)
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Additional resources for Authoritarian Party Structures and Democratic Political Setting in Turkey
As ANAP was defeated in the October 1991 general elections, Özal had taken an active campaign against Yılmaz’s leadership. Yılmaz did his best to get over Özal’s pressure on the party and create his own authority,17 and re-won the party leadership in the 1992 intraparty elections against Özal’s candidate. The intraparty democracy case for the DTP in 2007 intraparty elections was also a consequence of external shocks in the system. 18 These parties have been subject to the highest number of closures in Turkish political history, because of the claim that they have organic ties with the Kurdish terrorist and separatist organization—the PKK.
23 Thus, inclusiveness dimension must be accompanied by access to internal checks and balances such as the power to remove leaders; otherwise it may result in a decreasing role and influence of the party on the ground. Rather than focusing on the more complex and vague position of decentralization and institutionalization in internal party democracy, this study simply acknowledges that it is inclusiveness accompanied by checks and balances that internal party democracy accounts for. In internally democratic parties, the party on the ground (both members and activists) is included in the decision-making processes and able to oppose or remove the party leaders in central and public office when they deem it necessary.
28 The following two sections analyze these existing explanations and show that these explanations are not helpful in understanding what constitutes intraparty authoritarianism and its variants at the microlevel. Explanations in Liberal Democracies The existing power structure of political parties in liberal democracies is known as the outcome of an evolution of party organizations. 30 The types of parties are distinguished based on the question of who holds the internal power over the organizational structure.